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Wetlands in tropical and sub-tropical landscapes
are experiencing changes and loss due to urbanization and
intensive human use, but there is sparse detailed understanding
of how these affect use by wetland-dependent birds.
Urbanization and conversion of community wetlands to private
fish ponds are occurring rapidly in Haryana state in north
India. We conducted a study in Palwal district, Haryana in
2013–2014 to simultaneously understand (i) rates and reasons
for wetland loss between 1970s and 2000s, and (ii) relative
importance of location (towns/ villages versus those amid
agriculture) versus site-specific variables on the winter abundance of 31 waterbird species in these fish ponds. Wetland
extent reduced by 52 %, and average wetland size reduced by
42 % between 1970s and 2000s. Expansion of urban areas
converted 105 agricultural wetlands to town wetlands.
Wetlands of different locations could not be differentiated
using waterbird abundance suggesting that wetland conditions
have been homogenized, in part due to conversions to fish
ponds and in part due to urban expansions. Focal waterbird
abundance was affected more due to human activities relative
to location or vegetation. A complex combination of current
management practices and historical determinants of wetland persistence appear to be driving waterbird use of wetlands in
locations like Palwal.